The Y chromosome DNA test is a genetic comparison between two male participants to determine a paternal relationship.
The Y chromosome is one of the two chromosomes of sex determination. Its particularity is that only men have it, because it is only transmitted from father to son, from generation to generation .
The Y chromosome DNA test consists of analyzing the markers of this DNA, in order to define your paternal line with very high precision .
It can therefore by definition determine whether two or more men come from the same family.
The test can be done with buccal samples and discrete samples.
What is a
Y chromosome test?
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You can order a test to know your link directly on the internet at home in order to receive the sampling material at home.
It often happens that the participants can be geographically distant, in this case the laboratories propose to send a genetic kit to each of the participants.
However , it is still impossible to obtain a DNA test in a pharmacy and only a laboratory with genetic analysis equipment and accredited by international standards can provide the result for a Y chromosome test.
How to do a Y chromosome test?
Paternal Lineage Test Participants
In a paternal line, each male inherits from his father a perfectly identical and relatively unchanged Y chromosome over the generations .
In this context, all males of the same lineage share this gene in common . It is only after the birth of a daughter that this hereditary line breaks. Because women with only X chromosomes cannot transmit the Y chromosome.
The paternal lineage test determines whether the genes on the Y chromosomes are alike or not , and concludes whether the tested males may be related through a common male ancestor.
Y-chromosome analysis cannot distinguish a specific relationship between males belonging to the same paternal line.
For example, the test will not be able to define paternity between an alleged father and an uncle if the two share the same Y chromosome.
However, it can be useful for excluding men from an alleged biological relationship.
- Two or more men can participate in the test
- The test can be done between different male individuals to determine a paternal lineage
If in your search for paternity, the doubt is about presumed fathers coming from the same family, then the Y chromosome test is not suitable for your situation.
In this case, kindly consult our guide on finding paternity to find an appropriate DNA test.
Genetic analysis of the Y chromosome to determine the paternal lineage and the search for paternity can be useful in several situations depending on the participants:
- Genetic analysis between brothers and half-brothers (different biological mother)
- Genetic analysis between cousins (on the paternal side: the son of the uncle)
- Genetic analysis between a nephew and an uncle (the uncle must have the same biological father as the father sought)
- Genetic analysis between a grandson and his paternal grandfather
Under what conditions can a paternal line be defined?
Consent is the agreement you give to the laboratory to use your DNA for the purpose of carrying out a genetic analysis. It is mandatory if you want to do a Y chromosome test. Consent can only be given explicitly by an adult and fully lucid person. This agreement must be in writing after having received information of the outcomes of the test, by a contract or a consent form.
It is against the law to do a DNA test without the person's consent.
For minors, consent must be provided by one of the legal parents.
What is consent for a DNA test?
Y Chromosome Results
- 5-7 days using buccal swabs, for all participants
- 10+ days if a participant uses discrete samples
This time is calculated from the moment your samples arrive at the laboratory. The delivery time is not taken into account.
What are the analysis times for a Y chromosome test ?
The reliability and authenticity of test DNA depends on several factors:
- The quality of the samples
- Laboratory accreditation
- The choice of test according to family situation
How reliable are Y chromosome results?
The quality of DNA results depends on the sample collection and storage. It is important to follow the laboratory's instructions to ensure accurate results.
Accredited laboratories meet strict standards regarding the analysis process, resource and equipment management, impartiality and information confidentiality.
For a Y chromosome test, the laboratory must have ISO 17025 accreditation.
The Y chromosome test provides a 100% reliable negative result and a 99.9% reliable positive result.
The results are presented in the form of a table:
- Each column corresponding to a participant
- Each row to the compared genes
- The composition of the gene is represented by one or two numbers on each profile
How to read the results of the Y chromosome test?
DNA analysis is a direct relationship test. The genetic laboratory compares the profiles of each individual to determine whether they are similar or not. So the answer is either positive or negative, there is no room for doubt.
It is not possible to obtain inconclusive results .
To verify the relationship of participants:
The first participant must have an identical genetic profile to the second participant.
If the match is perfect, the relationship is concluded, otherwise it is rejected.
The choice of laboratory is a very important step when you want to do a Y-chromosome test. You should know that each of the laboratories has specific services and depending on your situation it is obvious to make the choice that suits you.
The choice of a laboratory can be made according to:
- Your family situation and available participants
- The confidence that the laboratory inspires through customer feedback
- The transparency of the company concerning its activities and your expectations
How to choose a reliable Laboratory?
Maternal line research
The mitochondrial DNA test allows anyone to compare this specific DNA from the biological mother to determine a common maternal line.
Paternity search between sisters
The analysis of the X chromosome makes it possible to define whether the two sisters share the same paternal X chromosome. For this, it is mandatory that the sisters share the same biological mother.
Y chromosome analysis can also be used for genealogical research on the origins of your paternal ancestors.
Genealogy DNA testing examines specific locations in your DNA to estimate ancestral genetic relationships. It allows your genetic profile to be compared and integrated with a database that lists and uses different reference ethnic groups , composed of people tested and whose previous origins are known.
There are three main types of genealogical DNA testing , each examining a different part of the genome and useful for different types of genealogical research:
In order to have information on your origins :
- Know your ethnic percentage
- Find information about the origin of your family
- Understand population migrations
You wish to complete the genealogical archives of your family :
- Improve your classic genealogy research
- Discover and identify genetic matches
- Find family members
- Add your genetic profile to a database
The genealogy DNA test will not give you with certainty and precision a biological relationship between family members . It can give you a more or less distant relationship percentage that you must confirm with a relationship test in order to guarantee the biological link.
The genealogy of the Y chromosome
The Y chromosome genealogy test can be used to determine paternal ancestry and trace the ancestors of the family on your father's side.
In addition to providing you with important information in your genealogical research, this DNA test gives you access to:
- Your direct paternal line and your geographical origins
- Relationships with people who have the same DNA
- The ancient migration paths of your male ancestors
- Your paternal affiliation to the haplogroup
The Y chromosome allows the paternal lineage of a man to be investigated very accurately. This approach can help you find unknown or lost relatives.
It is possible to order a genealogy test with the Y chromosome:
- This test is done individually
- With a saliva sample only
- The results are available in English
- Analysis is ready in 4 - 5 weeks