Prenatal Paternity Test
The Prenatal Paternity DNA test is a genetic comparison between the DNA of the fetus present in the mother's blood and that of a man in order to establish a parentage link.
This analysis determines the probability that a man is
the biological father of a baby.
This is a so-called "non-invasive" test that can be done during pregnancy and requires a blood test for the mother and oral samples for the father.
What is a Prenatal Paternity Test?
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You can order a prenatal paternity test from your home directly on the internet . This test is mostly requested privately and must be done with the assistance of a healthcare professional .
- Either the laboratory offers this service directly on site, or at a partner medical center
- Or the participants of the test must independently organize the blood test
Unfortunately, it is still impossible to obtain a DNA test in pharmacies, only a laboratory with genetic analysis equipment and accredited by international standards can provide the result for a prenatal paternity test .
How to do a Prenatal Paternity Test?
DNA Test Participants
The participants of the prenatal paternity test are: the pregnant mother and the alleged father of the baby . The test is non-invasive, which means it is safe ; both for the baby and for the mother, since only a simple blood test is necessary .
- The test can be done during pregnancy from the 9th week amenorrhea
To calculate amenorrhea weeks, you must count from the 1st day of the last menstrual period.
- The test cannot be performed in the following cases:
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF),
Twin or multiple pregnancies,
When the mother has cancer or preeclampsia
When the mother has received a blood transfusion, bone marrow transplant, organ transplant or stem cell treatment.
- One or more presumed fathers can participate in the test
If the father is not available for the test, you must wait until the baby is born in order to continue your paternity search.
In the event that the doubt of paternity relates to presumed fathers coming from the same family, you cannot take this test. You should wait for the baby to be born and do a simple paternity test.
The samples are (exclusively):
- Blood sample for the mother
- Saliva sample for the father(s)
You cannot use other samples for this test.
What type of sample is used for the prenatal test?
Preparation of the non-invasive test
Before placing the order for a prenatal paternity test, it is advisable to organize yourself well in order to have peace of mind and above all not to waste time .
You must be at at least 9 weeks of amenorrhea (7 weeks of pregnancy) for the blood test.
The longer you wait, the more likely you are to have enough of the baby's DNA in your blood to test.
Check with a healthcare professional about your weeks of pregnancy.
It happens in some mothers that the DNA of the fetus is not in sufficient quantity, even if you take the blood sample from the indicated time.
This cannot be predicted and remember that genetics is a science that depends on each person's genes.
If this happens to you, the laboratory will ask you to provide a new blood sample. Additional charges may apply.
When can we take the test?
You must arrange an appointment with a healthcare professional to have the blood drawn.
It can be your doctor, a laboratory or a private nurse.
This appointment is your responsibility and the laboratory will not provide you with any prescription for this procedure.
Don't worry, it is always possible to find a professional who will understand your needs in order to help you with the blood test.
Oral samples from the father do not require any intervention by a healthcare professional and saliva samples can be taken at home and even kept for several weeks until the start of the analysis.
Before ordering, plan the blood test!
The analysis of the prenatal paternity test can only be carried out within 10 days from the blood test.
You must therefore ensure that the blood samples are sent on the same day as the blood test .
The delivery of the kit and the mailing of your samples are often included in the purchase of the test.
They are usually carried out by a courier and take on average a few days to arrive at their destination.
- The timeline for receiving a kit is a few days, by international courier.
You have a tracking number and the drop-off must be done in person.
- In order to return your samples, you must contact the laboratory a few days before the blood test to arrange collection. The delivery to the laboratory takes a few days and you will have a new tracking number.
How can we send samples quickly?
Paternity Test Results
- 5 to 8 days (after receival of your samples)
- You have the possibility to choose an option in order to receive your results as soon as possible.
This delay is calculated from the moment your samples arrive at the laboratory. Transport time is not taken into account.
What are the delays for a prenatal DNA test?
The reliability of the prenatal paternity DNA test depends on:
- The date of the blood sample
- Sample quality
- Laboratory accreditation
- The status of the family situation
- The health of the mother and the course of the pregnancy
How reliable are the results?
The conclusion of the result depends on the quantity of DNA that the laboratory will be able to use to make the comparison of the DNA profiles.
Thus it has been studied that in the vast majority of pregnancies, it is from the 9th week of amenorrhea that it is possible to collect sufficient genetic information from the baby in mother's blood.
Accredited laboratories meet the requirements relating to the analysis process, management of resources and equipment, impartiality and confidentiality of information.
For a paternity test, the laboratory must have ISO 17025 accreditation .
It is difficult to predict if the sample that was taken contains enough fetal DNA to do the DNA test. Even if the recommendations of the laboratory indicate a possible removal from the 7th week of pregnancy, it is an average based on a group of participants and cannot reflect the reality of each one.
Every pregnancy is unique and just because your samples didn't provide enough information about the baby doesn't mean there's a problem with your pregnancy.
On the other hand, if you experience a complicated or stressful pregnancy because of the paternity situation, this can indeed have an influence on your relationship with the baby and reduce the exchange of genetic information which can be detected in your blood.
If your samples are not sufficient, the laboratory will ask you to take another blood sample, two weeks after the first one; fees may apply.
Since the DNA fragment is directly related to pregnancy and the baby, there is no risk of misdiagnosis or erroneous results due to pregnancies or miscarriages earlier.
Why did my samples not work?
The results are presented in the form of a simple table with a percentage of relationship.
- Either the result is 99%, then the test is positive, and the tested father is indeed the biological father of the fetus
- Or the result is 0%, then the test is negative, and the tested father is not the biological father of the fetus
The results of the prenatal paternity test come in the form of a simple percentage confirming or not the relationship. You will not have access to all the information concerning the analysis, since the sequencing technique is patented.
Yet, the reliability of this test is as accurate as a simple paternity test because the analysis technique employs a method of direct comparison between the baby's genetic fingerprint and that of the father. Prenatal paternity test results are 100% reliable for a negative result and 99.9% reliable for a positive result .
How to read the results of the genetic analysis?
When you want to perform a paternity test, it is crucial to select the right laboratory. Each laboratory offers specific services, and it is important to make a choice based on your personal situation.
Here are criteria to consider when making your choice:
Your family composition and the availability of participants
The reliability of the laboratory, based on customer feedback
The transparency of the company regarding its activity and meeting your expectations.
How to choose a reliable Laboratory?
Is the prenatal paternity test dangerous?
No, the prenatal paternity test is totally safe for the mother and the baby, since only a simple blood test is necessary. However, there are other invasive sampling methods such as amniocentesis or CVS (Chorionic Villus Sample), which present a risk of miscarriage.
Can a prenatal paternity test be done if the fathers are from the same family?
No, due to the way the data is analyzed, a prenatal paternity test cannot be performed reliably if the possible fathers are closely related (brothers or father/son).
Can this test be performed during a twin pregnancy ?
No, a prenatal paternity test cannot be performed if the mother is pregnant with twins or multiples.
Can a prenatal paternity test be legally attested?
No, in general, a prenatal paternity test cannot be considered a legal test with court-admissible results, as the collection methods are generally not performed by a licensed person.
However, for the results to be legally admissible and for the names to appear on the test report, you must contact the laboratory and check if this option is offered. In this case, the possible collection of DNA from the father and mother must be certified by an approved independent third party.
Frequently Asked Questions
A prenatal test can confirm who the father of the baby is from the start of pregnancy. It then becomes an essential tool when a complicated situation could lead to an act of abortion.
For women who choose to have an abortion, the decision time during which the operation can be performed is very short after a prenatal paternity test. As noted, the mother can take the test when she is pregnant after the 7th week of pregnancy, the time from when the baby begins to grow in the placenta .
Basically, an abortion can be done as soon as the mother realizes she is pregnant, which is usually around 4 to 6 weeks into the pregnancy and the last time it can be done is usually around the 22nd. week of pregnancy.
The reasons for this are that there is less risk to the mother if the abortion is performed early, rather than late. Indeed if the fetus grows, the extraction method can become a major and painful operation.
It is for these reasons that the person who wishes to do a prenatal paternity test for the purpose of a potential abortion must be well organized. In order not to waste time and have as little stress as possible to consider this decision. It is advisable to make an appointment for your abortion as soon as possible even if you do not go there.
The laboratories defend themselves and do not tolerate that prenatal tests can be used for reasons of abortion.
Prenatal Paternity Test and Abortion
A prenatal DNA test can also tell you if your baby is a boy or a girl. This is a test that is always "non-invasive" and can be done during pregnancy with a blood test for the mother only.
For this test, the mother must be pregnant at least 10 weeks of amenorrhea (8 weeks of pregnancy) for the blood test.