A child inherits exactly half of his genes from his biological parent (father or mother) and the biological parent shares about half of his genes in common with his brother and sister (uncle and aunt). Thus the child (boy or girl) shares around the quarter of his genes in common with his uncle and aunt .
Based on the number of genetic matches, the lab calculates the statistical probability that the alleged aunt or uncle is biologically related to the child. To perform this test, the uncle and aunt must share the same biological parents as the presumed father or mother .
Because even if they share the same biological parents, the uncle or the aunt is not genetically identical to his brother and his sister. On average, the avuncular test allows the laboratory to determine only half of the genes of the alleged parent.
It is always recommended to test one or both of the known parents to get the most accurate results possible. Since the genetic heritage of children is only half of that of the parents.
The participation of the parents (the child's biological mother or father depending on the situation) in the avuncular filiation test makes it possible to exclude half of the child's DNA leaving the other half for comparison with the DNA of the person sought. This improves the reliability of the results .
In this sense, it is very important to do this test with a full brother or sister of the alleged parent.
Otherwise, the test will not be conclusive .
If in your search for kinship, the doubt relates to presumed parents coming from the same family, then all the known relatives must participate in the test with the children. Otherwise, the results may lose precision. As a general rule, the more genetic information available, the better the chances of a successful test.
Which parents should participate in an avuncular DNA test?
Typically, participants in an avuncular DNA test are children (nephew and or niece) and either a sibling of the alleged parent (uncle or aunt). As far as possible, the mother or father of the child, depending on the situation, must also bring his DNA to the tests according to the search for paternity or maternity because its participation can certainly help to reinforce the results.
Can the test be done with a half-brother and half-sister of the alleged parent?
No, the laboratory cannot test the half-siblings of a possible wanted father or mother. It must be a full brotherly relationship in order to achieve the most successful results possible. In other words the uncle and aunt must be siblings complete (same biological parents) of the wanted father or mother.
Can we test first cousins instead of an aunt or uncle?
No, no relationship DNA test can be done with cousin participation because the percentage of DNA they could share with the person in question is too low to establish a biological relationship. Whether for the avuncular test or any other type of test.
Can we test from different addresses?
Yes, the laboratories always offer an option to send you several kits if the participants do not have the possibility to do the test together. This can also be done even if the participants are in different countries.
Can we come to the lab to do a test?
Usually no, the companies that offer you online testing are merchant companies that work in partnership with laboratories to outsource all procedural logistics and customer service. This allows the laboratory to concentrate only on the analytical work and so it is very rare that they provide a place open to the public. In addition, the sample collection that is requested does not require the intervention of a professional.
Can drug or drug consumption have a consequence on a DNA test?
No, no substance can alter a person's DNA. But the samples you send to the lab can be contaminated or degraded by many environmental factors. Take care to keep them in paper envelopes, avoid handling them with your fingers, and especially not using a plastic bag.
Issues Frequently Asked Questions
Relationship DNA testing compares the genetic profiles of two or more people to determine a common biological heritage. In general, the test highlights the similarities and differences that make up your genetic fingerprint and evaluates your match rate in order to give you results corresponding to your search for a relationship.
Under no circumstances can this study be established without comparing different individuals , because your DNA is unique and does not contain the genetic profiles of your family, but only its heritage.
- Test between siblings
- Test with grandparents
- Test with uncle or aunt
- Test with cousins
The DNA Relationship Test
Do you want to remove any doubt about your biological origin or that of a loved one? But you do not don't know which test is best suited to your situation, follow our guide ! On infotestadn.com we you propose to guide you on the possible tests currently by putting you in the situation of a search for paternity or maternity . It's simple and free and it will allow you to already have solid information before having to contact the laboratory.
Which DNA test to choose?
The Avuncular DNA test can be performed with:
- Saliva samples (Sterile buccal swabs)
- Non-standard samples : Like hair, nails, toothbrush...
Be careful, you must follow the instructions and respect the conditions so that the samples provide enough genetic information for your test.
What type of sample was used for the test?
Consent is the agreement you give to the laboratory to use your DNA for the purpose of carrying out a genetic analysis. It is mandatory if you want to do an avuncular test. Consent can only be given explicitly by an adult and fully lucid person. This agreement must be drafted after having received informed information about the outcomes of the test, through a contract or a consent form.
It is against the law to do a DNA test without the person's consent.
For minors, consent must be provided by one of the legal parents.
What is consent for a DNA test?
Avuncular Test Participants
- The aunt must be a full sister of the parent sought
If the aunt participates in the test, the uncle will not participate, it's one or the other
For a maternity search between the aunt and her nephews, it is advisable to use:
mitochondrial DNA test which in this case is much more reliable
- One or more children can participate in the test (boy - girl)
The children can be full sisters and brothers, or half-brothers and half-sisters.
- The uncle must be the brother complete of the wanted parent
If the uncle participates in the test, the aunt will not participate, it's one or the other
For a paternity search between the uncle and a boy, it is advisable to use:
The reliability and authenticity of the test between the nephew, the niece and his uncle or aunt depend on several factors:
- The quality of the samples
- Laboratory accreditation
- The choice of the test according to the family situation
How reliable are the results?
The quality of the DNA will depend on the collection and storage of the samples . It is therefore important to follow the instructions of the laboratory in order to ensure that you receive results.
Accredited laboratories meet the requirements relating to the analysis process, management of resources and equipment, impartiality and confidentiality of information. For an avuncular test, the laboratory must have ISO 17025 accreditation .
The reliability of the result depends on the number of genes compared. All the laboratories offer tests on an average of 15 to 22 genes (STR Loci) to perform the comparison between the participants. Depending on your situation, you have the possibility to ask the laboratory for an extended comparison of the number of loci. The extended comparison improves the precision and therefore the reliability of the results.
The results are presented in the form of a table:
- Each column corresponding to a participant
- Each line corresponds to a gene
- The composition of the gene is represented by one or two numbers per participant
How to read the results of an Avuncular test?
DNA analysis with uncle or aunt is an indirect relationship test. The genetic laboratory is trying to recreate the profile of a father or a mother, with as genetic information those of a sister or a brother (aunt or uncle). Thus the test is based on statistics and probabilities which play an important role in the interpretation of the results. Participants may have alleles that are different due to random, yet common, inheritance. Conversely, it is not because the alleles are similar that they necessarily confirm the parent in common.
It is possible to obtain inconclusive results .
Verification of relationship of participants:
The DNA test for parentage comes with a relationship index . This index in base of 1 expresses the probability of gene in common between the participants. The relationship index is then converted to a relationship percentage.
Parentage test results with aunt and uncle must be interpreted in terms of probability and the parentage relationship index is translated into a percentage that can be between 0% and 99.99% .
- If the index is greater than 1 and your percentage is greater than 90%, the test is positive
- If the index is less than 1 and your percentage is less than 10%, then the test is negative
The mitochondrial DNA test compares your DNA with that of your aunt to determine if you share the maternal line.
Maternal line research
Paternal line research
The analysis of the Y chromosome makes it possible to define whether the uncle and the nephew come from the same paternal line. By deduction to define the paternity of the child.
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The uncle and aunt DNA test, also called the avuncular test, determines the probability of kinship between a child (nephew or niece) with an aunt or uncle .
The test is a genetic comparison in order to establish a biological filiation link on the side of a presumed father or mother . The avuncular test can be done with buccal samples and discrete samples. Those tested include a child and an aunt or uncle.
What is an Avuncular test?
You can do an avuncular DNA test at home in a private setting . The order can be made directly on the internet from your home in order to receive the sampling equipment at home.
Moreover, it is still impossible to obtain a DNA test in a pharmacy, and only a laboratory with genetic analysis equipment and accredited by international standards can provide the result for an avuncular DNA test.
How to do a DNA test between Nephew/Niece and Aunt or Uncle?
The answer is no ! Genetic analysis to determine parentage becomes too complex when participants are considered cousins . Your DNA being too far from your cousin, the relationship by genetic analysis will hardly give you an accurate result. The vast majority of laboratories do not offer this service and refuse to carry out the parentage analysis if the participant declares this situation.
Can I do a test with cousins?
Parentage Link Results
- 5-7 days using buccal swabs for all participants
- 10 days and more if a participant uses discrete samples
This time is calculated from the moment your samples arrive at the laboratory. The delivery time is not taken into account.
What are the analysis times for an Uncle and Aunt test?
The choice of laboratory is a very important step when you want to do a parentage test. You should know that not all laboratories offer the same services and depending on several factors you must choose the laboratory that offers a service that corresponds to your research.
You must choose a laboratory according to:
- Your family situation and available participants
- The confidence that the laboratory inspires through customer feedback
- The transparency of the company concerning its activity and your expectations