The test to know your maternal line does not use autosomal DNA as in a generalist test; but rather the mitochondrial DNA which is transmitted only by the mother to her children.

Mitochondria 
is an autonomous structure present in all cells
 humans.This component has the particularity of having its own DNA, and has the function of providing de energy  to the cell allowing it to become completely autonomous in turn.

The mitochondria and therefore its mitochondrial DNA are transmitted exclusively by the mother to all her children..This transmission is completely identical from generation en generationbecause mitochondrial DNA mutations are extremely rare.

The mitochondrial DNA test consists of analyzing the markers of this DNA, in order to define your maternal line with great precision.It can be carried out by men and women for genealogical research as well as for a comparison test. 

The maternal lineage test

 

Haplogroups are large groups of populations with common characteristics and correspond to the great waves of migrations through prehistory and history.. Belonging to one group rather than another will help guide your genealogical research to people or areas of the world that share your haplogroup.

The story of mitochondrial Eve:  
 

It is the name given to a hypothetical woman considered the most recent common ancestor by the maternal line of humanity. Its existence is evidenced by the demonstration that there is a single lineage of mitochondria in the cells of all humans. Indeed, by going up the chain of events of a maternal line, we arrive inevitably  to a woman who still has today an exceptional line of descending feminine. Although this person has could not be identified during his lifetime.

Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups 

The mitochondrial DNA test can also be used to confirm the biological relationship between two people, since all individuals of the same lineage are assumed to have an identical copy of this DNA.

The mitochondrial DNA test makes it possible with great certainty to confirm a relationship of maternity, fraternity or filiation between two or more people.

On the other hand, mitochondrial DNA analysis cannot distinguish a specific relationship between women belonging to the same maternal line. 

DNA test to determine parentage

mitochondrial dna test

Genealogy DNA Test

genealogy test

Genealogy DNA testing is researchgeneticin order to know youroriginsbiological. This analysis makes it possible to determine the ancestry of a person and thus learn more about your ancestors on your father and mother side.

Order your DNA test kit online

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Receive your DNA kit at

home

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Take samples

at home

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Send

your

samples

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Discover your results

by email

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The DNA test to know its origins is carried out on the basis of a simple buccal swab. Thanks to a quick saliva sample that you can do from home, the laboratory can determine the geographical origins of your DNA.

Whether you're looking for your family tree, an unknown relative, or just want to know more about yourself. The genealogy DNA test can allow you to discover your family history and find out where your ancestors came from across regions and peoples of the world.

To do this, the laboratory analyzes areas of your DNA in order to compare them to a database which brings together all the genetic information of humanity since the first humans appeared on earth. Depending on the matches that will be found between your DNA and the reference groups, you will obtain a percentage of biological relationship according to each region or population that matches your DNA.

Origins test: How does it work?

The references


After determining your reference haplogroup, the lab can go even further to find your origins and give you results that can target specific regions or populations.

For this, they use reference tests that have been carried out in all regions of the world, on people from this region for several generations. The structure of their DNA with the mutations that compose it will then be used as a reference when comparing with your DNA. Under these conditions, the more the laboratory will have precise references according to the regions, the more it will be able to give you reliable results on your origins.

This is why a result can be different from one laboratory to another. Each having built a genetic information base with sometimes different references. (Since it is possible to have a DNA structure that differs between two people from the same region) 
The results of your genealogy DNA test may not be completely similar if you do it with several laboratories.

The Autosomal DNA Test

The autosomal DNA test is an analysis of all chromosomes not involved in determining a person's sex.An autosome is therefore a non-sex chromosome that holds almost the majority of a person's genetic information.

This analysis makes it possible to identify the compositional variants of a gene(the NHPs)in order to compare them to a composite database information  regarding all types of variants  known DNA. To create genetic matches between people with the same variants. 

The correspondence between individuals is generally defined in centimorgan (cM) which represents the unit of measurement of a genetic link. This you will allow to know the relationship estimate that you can share with other people who have already been tested in the laboratory database.

Thus, thehe reliability of autosomal DNA testing depends on: 

 

-Dthe genetic information held by the laboratory on the populations compared

- The number of markers used

- The value of the genetic variations (PSN) tested

- The degree of mixing in the person tested

 

Earlier estimates of this test were often highly imprecise, but their accuracy has improved significantly as the number of participants and the information collected has increased.

X Chromosome DNA Test

 

X sex chromosome analysis is often included in autosomal DNA testing. All people, men and women receive one X chromosome from their mother, but only females receive a second X chromosome from their father.

Tracking X chromosome hereditary lineage is helpful to greatly reduce relationship possibilities and improve the accuracy of autosomal DNA test report. Because an X chromosome match with a man can only come from his maternal side. Like autosomal DNA, X-chromosome DNA is randomly passed on to each generation, with the exception of the X chromosomes from father to daughter, which are transmitted unchanged

The peculiarity of the autosomal DNA test

This analysis of autosomal DNA therefore makes it possible to identify gene variations (mutations) that you have inherited from your family from generation to generation.. But it is quite possible that two people from the same family (brothers and sisters) do not share the same results.

The genetic heritage of each human being is composed of half of the genetic heritage of his father and the other half of that of his mother..But every child randomly inherits genes from their parents. Thus, everyone has a different and unique genetic heritage..

Under these conditions, the tiny genetic mutations present on our chromosomes which are used to establish the results of the autosomal DNA test will not necessarily be the same for two children of the same sibling.

It is therefore recommended to improve the reliability of your research that several people from the same family take part in this test in order to always refine the precision  information.

X chromosome DNA test


To obtain a result during a genealogy test, the laboratory classifies your DNA by genetic group which is also known as: haplogroup.

Haplogroups is a genetic classification linked to the molecular evolution of the human species generation after generation. Since the appearance of human beings, natural mutations have shaped our DNA. Today, we can determine the main mutations linked to the major population groups which are: European, Native American, African (sub-Saharan) and Asian (East Asian). With a DNA test to know your ancestors, you will be able to know the percentage of belonging to these different groups.

Haplogroups


To do a genealogy DNA test, laboratories only accept saliva samples. It is not possible to use another type of sample such as hair, nails or blood during this analysis. Because only a buccal sample will provide the laboratory with the information necessary to find your origins.

The saliva self-sampling procedures have been put in place by the laboratories to be done as easily as possible at home. This is why after ordering the test online, you will receive the standard collection kit with one or more sterile swabs and collection instructions inside. A swab is a sterile pharmaceutical cotton swab with which you will be able to perform a buccal swab on the inside of the cheek by following the explanatory leaflet. The procedure is quick, painless and you don't need any professional assistance to perform it.

 

Samples can be taken at any age, from birth or on an elderly person.

How to take samples?

 

The results of the DNA test to find out your origins are available within 3 to 5 weeks of receipt of your samples at the laboratory. At the end of this analysis, the laboratories send the report by email, but it is always possible to request a paper version directly from you. 

The results are presented as a personalized certificate of ancestry detailing the estimated percentage of membership in population groups. With a relationship percentage determined for each. Also, a detailed interpretation of the laboratory also explains all of your affiliations related to the various ancestry tests and the history of human migrations.

The results of the genealogy test

The paternal lineage test

The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in human beings. It is part of the XY system of sex determination, that each person has in the cells of his body.

- Males have a Y chromosome and an X chromosome - (XY) -

- Women have two X chromosomes - (XX) -

The particularity of the Y chromosome is that only men have it, because it is only transmitted from father to son during fertilization. Moreover, this transmission is such that the possibilities of mutation are rare, thus the Y chromosome remains unchanged over the generations.

The Y chromosome DNA test consists of analyzing the markers of this DNA, in order to define your paternal line with great precision. It can be done by men for genealogical research as well as for a relationship test. 

Haplogroups are large groups of populations with common characteristics and correspond to the great waves of migrations through prehistory and history.. Belonging to one group rather than another will help guide your genealogical research to people or areas of the world that share your haplogroup.

Y Chromosome DNA Haplogroups

The Y chromosome DNA test can also be used to confirm the biological relationship between two people, since all individuals of the same lineage are assumed to have an identical copy of this DNA.

The Y chromosome DNA test allows with great certainty to confirm a relationship of paternity, brotherhood or filiation between two or more people.

In contrast, Y-chromosome DNA analysis cannot distinguish a specific relationship between males belonging to the same paternal line.

DNA test to determine parentage

test de la lignée paternelle