The test to know your maternal line does not use autosomal DNA as in a generalist test; but rather the mitochondrial DNA which is transmitted only by the mother to her children.
Mitochondria is an autonomous structure present in all human cells.
This component has the particularity of having its own DNA and has the function of providing the energy to the cell allowing it to become completely autonomous in turn.
The mitochondria and therefore its mitochondrial DNA are transmitted exclusively by the mother to all her children. This transmission is completely identical from generation to generation because mitochondrial DNA mutations are extremely rare.
The mitochondrial DNA test consists of analyzing the markers of this DNA, in order to define your maternal line with great precision.
It can be carried out by men and women for genealogical research as well as for a comparison test.
The maternal lineage test
Haplogroups are large groups of populations with common characteristics, and correspond to the great waves of migrations through prehistory and history. Belonging to one group rather than another will help guide your genealogical research to people or areas of the world that share your haplogroup.
The story of mitochondrial Eve:
It is the name given to a hypothetical woman considered the most recent common ancestor by the maternal line of humanity. Its existence is evidenced by the demonstration that there is a single lineage of mitochondria in the cells of all humans.
Indeed, by going up the chain of events of a maternal line, we arrive inevitably to a woman who still has today an exceptional line of descending females. Although this person has not been identified as of yet.
Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups
DNA test to determine parentage
Ancestry DNA Test
Ancestry or Genealogy DNA testing is genetic research in order to know your biological origins.
This analysis makes it possible to determine the ancestry of a person and thus learn more about your ancestors on your father’s and mother’s side.
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Discover your results
The Autosomal DNA Test
The autosomal DNA test is an analysis of all chromosomes not involved in determining a person’s sex. An autosome is therefore a non-sex chromosome that holds almost the majority of a person’s genetic information.
This analysis makes it possible to identify the compositional variants of a gene (the NHPs) in order to compare them to a database regarding all types of known variants of DNA, to create genetic matches between people with the same variants.
The correspondence between individuals is generally defined in centimorgan (cM) which represents the unit of measurement of a genetic link.
This will allow you to know the relationship estimate that you can share with other people who have already been tested in the laboratory database.
Thus, the reliability of autosomal DNA testing depends on:
The genetic information held by the laboratory on the populations compared
The number of markers used
The value of the genetic variations (SNP) tested
The degree of mixing in the person tested
Earlier estimates of this test were often highly imprecise, but their accuracy has improved significantly as the number of participants and the information collected has increased.
The paternal lineage test
The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in human beings. It is part of the XY system of sex determination, that each person has in the cells of his body.
Males have a Y chromosome and an X chromosome - (XY) -
Women have two X chromosomes - (XX) -
The particularity of the Y chromosome is that only men have it, because it is only transmitted from father to son during fertilization.
Moreover, this transmission makes the possibilities of mutation are rare, thus the Y chromosome remains unchanged over the generations.
The Y chromosome DNA test consists of analyzing the markers of this DNA, in order to define your paternal line with great precision. It can be done by men for genealogical research as well as for a relationship test.
Haplogroups are large groups of populations with common characteristics and correspond to the great waves of migrations through prehistory and history.
Belonging to one group rather than another will help guide your genealogical research to people or areas of the world that share your haplogroup.
Y Chromosome DNA Haplogroups
The Y chromosome DNA test can also be used to confirm the biological relationship between two people, since all individuals of the same lineage are assumed to have an identical copy of this DNA.
The Y chromosome DNA test allows to confirm with great certainty a relationship of paternity, sibling or relationship between two or more people.
In contrast, Y-chromosome DNA analysis cannot distinguish a specific relationship between males belonging to the same paternal line.
DNA test to determine parentage
The DNA test to know its origins is carried out on the basis of a simple buccal swab.
With a quick saliva sample that you can do from home, the laboratory can determine the geographical origins of your DNA.
Whether you’re looking for your family tree, an unknown relative, or just want to know more about yourself, the genealogy DNA test can allow you to discover your family history and find out where your ancestors came from across regions and peoples of the world.
To do this, the laboratory analyzes areas of your DNA in order to compare them to a database which brings together all the genetic information of humanity since the first humans appeared on earth.
Depending on the matches that will be found between your DNA and the reference groups, you will obtain a percentage of biological relationship according to each region or population that matches your DNA.
How does it work?
To obtain a result during a genealogy test, the laboratory classifies your DNA by genetic group, which is also known as: haplogroup.
Haplogroups are a genetic classification linked to the molecular evolution of the human species generation after generation.
Since the appearance of human beings, natural mutations have shaped our DNA.
Today, we can determine the main mutations linked to the major population groups which are: European, Native American, African (sub-Saharan) and Asian (East Asian).
With a DNA test to know your ancestors, you will be able to know the percentage of belonging to these different groups.
After determining your reference haplogroup, the lab can go even further to find your origins and give you results that can target specific regions or populations.
For this, they use reference tests that have been carried out in all regions of the world, on people from this region for several generations.
The structure of their DNA with the mutations that compose it will then be used as a reference when comparing with your DNA.
With these conditions, the laboratory will have more precise references according to the regions, which will be able to give you more accurate results on your origins.
This is why a result can be different from one laboratory to another, as each has built a genetic information base with some different references.
(Since it is possible to have a DNA structure that differs between two people from the same region)
The results of your genealogy DNA test may not be completely the same if you do it with several laboratories.
X Chromosome DNA Test
Sex chromosome analysis is often included in autosomal DNA testing. All people, men and women receive one X chromosome from their mother, but only females receive a second X chromosome from their father.
Tracking X chromosome hereditary lineage is helpful to greatly reduce relationship possibilities and improve the accuracy of autosomal DNA test report.
Because an X chromosome match with a man can only come from his maternal side. Like autosomal DNA, X-chromosome DNA is passed on to each generation in multiple variations, with the exception of the X chromosomes from father to daughter, which is transmitted unchanged.
The specificity of the autosomal DNA test
This analysis of autosomal DNA therefore makes it possible to identify gene variations (mutations) that you have inherited from your family from generation to generation. But it is quite possible that two people from the same family (brothers and sisters) do not share the same results.
The genetic heritage of each human being is composed of half of the genetic heritage of his father and the other half of that of his mother, but every child inherits a unique mix of genes from their parents. Thus, everyone has a different and unique genetic heritage.
Under these conditions, the tiny genetic mutations present on our chromosomes which are used to establish the results of the autosomal DNA test will not necessarily be the same for two children who are siblings.
It is therefore recommended to improve the reliability of your research by having several people from the same family take part in this DNA test in order to always refine the precision of the information.
To do a genealogy DNA test, laboratories only accept saliva samples. It is not possible to use another type of sample such as hair, nails or blood during this analysis.
Because only a buccal sample will provide the laboratory with the information necessary to find your origins.
The saliva self-sampling procedures have been put in place by the laboratories to be done as easily as possible at home.
This is why after ordering the test online, you will receive the standard collection kit with one or more sterile swabs and collection instructions inside.
A swab is a sterile pharmaceutical cotton swab with which you will be able to perform a buccal swab on the inside of the cheek by following the explanatory leaflet.
The procedure is quick, painless and you don’t need any professional assistance to perform it.
Samples can be taken at any age, from young children to elderly people.
How to take samples?
The results of the DNA test to find out your origins are available within 3 to 5 weeks of receipt of your samples at the laboratory.
At the end of this analysis, the laboratories send the report by email, but it is always possible to request a paper version directly to you.
The results are presented as a personalized certificate of ancestry detailing the estimated percentage of membership in population groups, with a relationship percentage determined for each.
Also, a detailed interpretation of the laboratory also explains all of your affiliations related to the various ancestry tests and the history of human migrations.
The results of
the genealogy test
Online data protection is crucial to ensure the privacy and security of personal information.
The collection, storage and transmission of sensitive data can be vulnerable to cyberattacks and data breaches.
Additionally, online data can be used for malicious purposes, such as discrimination or misuse of information.
DNA Test Kit
A DNA test kit is a set of products that extract an individual's DNA to perform a genetic test.
DNA kits often come with saliva or buccal cell samples, reagents to extract the DNA, and a processing system to analyze the results.
DNA test kits can be used for various applications, such as genealogy, paternity, genetic disease prevention, etc.